accurate expression: when we think, feel or want something and we describe it accurately
advance care directive: a legal form for people aged over 18 years to record wishes and instructions for their future health care if unable to make their own decisions.
affective: pertaining to one’s emotional state.
affect regulation: controlling one’s emotions.
Axis I: a classification in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) consisting of major psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders (depression and bipolar disorder), anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, etc.
Axis II: a classification in DSM-IV-TR for personality disorders, for example, BPD.
cognition: a thought or belief.
cognitive: referring to thinking or reasoning.
comorbid: occurring together with another disease or condition.
depersonalization: a sense of being unreal.
diagnostic criteria: a list of clinical features that must be present for the diagnosis of a mental disorder to be made.
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): a treatment for BPD developed byMarsha Linehan combining aspects of cognitive and behavioral therapy. The treatment teaches specific skills to manage emotions, control impulsiveness, and diminish self-destructive behavior.
dissociation: feelings of detachment from one’s own body or thinking.
DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the American system of classification of psychiatric diagnoses.
dysphoria: a state of sadness or depressed mood.
dysregulation: the inability to regulate or control (mood or impulses).
emotion (primary): fear, happiness/love, embarrassment/shame, guilt and sadness
emotion (secondary): a reaction to a primary emotion
etiology: cause or presumed cause.
hypervigilance: When someone is on alert for a threat, but more than they need to.
ideation: the process of thinking or forming ideas.
impulsivity: inability to resist performing some action.
invalidation: When you communicate that another person’s experience, emotions, thinking or actions are invalid or wrong or bad, and they shouldn’t feel that way. Even when it is valid.
judgements: Judgements help us sort our emotions into good/bad, right/wrong or should/shouldn’t. Judgements are associated with secondary emotion and can lead to a lot of pain
mindfulness: Paying attention on purpose, right here and now, with no interpretations or judgements
non-judgemental stance: To enter into a reality that is real and solid. (a judgement is not reality, it’s an interpretation) It is primarily about description
pathology: the condition and processes of a disease or disorder.
psychosis: a loss of reality and impairment of mental, social, and personal functioning.
radical acceptance: when you accept reality eg it is what it is. Letting go of the illusion of control and accepting things as they are right now, without judging
reciprocity: what one person does affects the other and what they do comes back and affects the one.
reciprocity (negative): when one person is judgemental, then over time, the other may become more judgemental
reciprocity (positive): as one person becomes more aware, present, caring and gentle, it becomes easier for the other person to be warm and loving
relationship mindfulness: bringing all of your attention to another person right now in this moment, with interest, observation and description (not being judgemental or critical)
suicidal ideation: thoughts of wishing one were not alive or of committing suicide.
trigger: an external event or circumstance that may produce very uncomfortable emotional or psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, panic, discouragement, despair, or negative self-talk
validation: legitimizing the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of another. Communicating the legitimacy of the other persons experience, emotion, thought, want or activity. A validating response is that makes sense. Praise means you like it but validation means you understand it and it is legitimate
how to validate: if you feel the same way, just say ‘me too’
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