affective: pertaining to one’s emotional state.
affect regulation: controlling one’s emotions.
Axis I: a classification in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) consisting of major psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders (depression and bipolar disorder), anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, etc.
Axis II: a classification in DSM-IV-TR for personality disorders, for example, BPD.

cognition: a thought or belief.
cognitive: referring to thinking or reasoning.
comorbid: occurring together with another disease or condition.

depersonalization: a sense of being unreal.
diagnostic criteria: a list of clinical features that must be present for the diagnosis of a mental disorder to be made.
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): a treatment for BPD developed byMarsha Linehan combining aspects of cognitive and behavioral therapy. The treatment teaches specific skills to manage emotions, control impulsiveness, and diminish self-destructive behavior.
feelings of detachment from one’s own body or thinking.
DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the American system of classification of psychiatric diagnoses.
dysphoria: a state of sadness or depressed mood.
dysregulation: the inability to regulate or control (mood or impulses).

etiology: cause or presumed cause.

ideation: the process of thinking or forming ideas.
impulsivity: inability to resist performing some action.

pathology: the condition and processes of a disease or disorder.
psychosis: a loss of reality testing and impairment of mental, social, and personal functioning.

suicidal ideation: thoughts of wishing one were not alive or of committing suicide.

validation: legitimizing the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of another.